Introduction This is the 16-bit version of the FAT file system. The 16-bit part describes the way units are allocated on the drive.
The FAT16 file system uses a 16-bit number to identify each allocation unit (called cluster), and this gives it a total of 65.536 clusters. The size of each cluster is defined in the boot sector of the volume (volume = partition). The File System ID number usually associated with FAT16 volumes are 04h and 06h. The first is used on volumes with less than 65536 sectors (typical this is on drives less than 32 Mb in size), and the latter one is used on volumes with more than 65536 sectors. There is also another variant which is used with the LBA address mode, that variant has a File System ID of 0Eh. I do not know if the LBA variant is different from the CHS type.
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So far I don't se why anything should be changed to support LBA addresses. FAT16 File System Structure Region Reserved Region (incl. Boot Sector) File Allocation Table (FAT) Root Directory Data Region The first sector (boot sector) contain information which is used to calculate the sizes and locations of the other regions. The boot sector also contain code to boot the operating system installed on the volume. The data region is split up into logical blocks called clusters. Each of these clusters has an accompanying entry in the FAT region.
The cluster specific entry can either contain a value of the next cluster which contain data from the file, or a so called End-of-file value which means that there are no more clusters which contain data from the file. The root directory and its sub-directories contain filename, dates, attribute flags and starting cluster information about the filesystem objects.
Structure of the FAT16 Boot sector Part Offset Size Description Code 0000h 3 bytes Code to jump to the bootstrap code. OS Name 0003h 8 bytes Oem ID - Name of the formatting OS BIOS Para- meter Block 000Bh 2 bytes 000Dh 1 bytes - Usual there is 512 bytes per sector.
000Eh 2 bytes from the start of the volume. 0010h 1 bytes - Usual 2 copies are used to prevent data loss.
0011h 2 bytes - 512 entries are recommended. 0013h 2 bytes - Used when volume size is less than 32 Mb. 0015h 1 bytes 0016h 2 bytes 0018h 2 bytes 001Ah 2 bytes 001Ch 4 bytes 0020h 4 bytes - Used when volume size is greater than 32 Mb.
BIOS Para- meter Block 0024h 1 bytes - Used by some bootstrap code, fx. 0025h 1 bytes - Is used by Windows NT to decide if it shall check disk integrity.
0026h 1 bytes - Indicates that the next three fields are available. 0027h 4 bytes 002Bh 11 bytes - Should be the same as in the root directory. 0036h 8 bytes - The string should be 'FAT16 ' Code 003Eh 448 bytes - May schrink in the future.
01FEh 2 - This is the AA55h signature. FAT Entry Value for 2nd cluster 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 C E These bits must be set 0000h C = If clear then the volume may be dirty because it was not cleanly dismounted. If the bit is set then the volume is clean.
E = If clear a read/write error was encountered during the last time the volume was mounted. If the bit is set then no read/write error was encountered. It should be noted that the last entry in the FAT should be calculated by taking the number of clusters in the data area, and not relying on the field in the BIOS Parameter Block. This is because the number of entries in the FAT doesn't have to be an even multiple of the bytes per sector value. The maximum size of each FAT copy is 128 Kb (2 * 65536). Directory Entry Structure Each of the entries in a directory list is 32 byte long.